Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2017 May 6;18(5):989.
doi: 10.3390/ijms18050989.

Drug-Loadable Calcium Alginate Hydrogel System for Use in Oral Bone Tissue Repair

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Drug-Loadable Calcium Alginate Hydrogel System for Use in Oral Bone Tissue Repair

Luyuan Chen et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

This study developed a drug-loadable hydrogel system with high plasticity and favorable biological properties to enhance oral bone tissue regeneration. Hydrogels of different calcium alginate concentrations were prepared. Their swelling ratio, degradation time, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) release rate were measured. Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured with both calcium alginate hydrogels and polylactic acid (PLA), and then we examined the proliferation of cells. Inflammatory-related factor gene expressions of hPDLCs and osteogenesis-related gene expressions of BMSCs were observed. Materials were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits to determine the biosecurity properties of the materials. The materials were also implanted in mandibular bone defects and then scanned using micro-CT. The calcium alginate hydrogels caused less inflammation than the PLA. The number of mineralized nodules and the expression of osteoblast-related genes were significantly higher in the hydrogel group compared with the control group. When the materials were implanted in subcutaneous tissue, materials showed favorable biocompatibility. The calcium alginate hydrogels had superior osteoinductive bone ability to the PLA. The drug-loadable calcium alginate hydrogel system is a potential bone defect reparation material for clinical dental application.

Keywords: biocompatibility; calcium alginate hydrogels; drug-loadable system; human periodontal ligament cells; tissue engineering.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Gross appearance of hydrogels with calcium alginate concentration (A) 12.5 mg/mL; (B) 25 mg/mL; and (C) 50 mg/mL.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Injectable calcium alginate hydrogel (concentration 25 mg/mL).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Swelling ratio of calcium alginate hydrogels (* p < 0.05 n = 5).
Figure 4
Figure 4
(A) Wet and (B) dry weight loss rates (* p < 0.05 n = 5). “x” above 28 and 56 days means samples had finished degradation.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Cumulative BSA release of calcium alginate hydrogels (n = 5).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Initiation culture and immunohistochemical identification of hPDLCs (200×): (A) hPDLCs migrated from the border of the tissue; (B) anti-vimentin positive in hPDLCs; (C) anti-keratin negative in hPDLCs.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Growth curve of hPDLCs.
Figure 8
Figure 8
RGR (%) of co-cultured hPDLCs.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Mineralization nodules of BMSCs: (A) Control; (B) PLA; (C) 12.5 mg/mL; (D) 25 mg/mL; (E) 50 mg/mL.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Number of mineralization nodules (* p < 0.05 vs. control; # p < 0.05 vs. PLA).
Figure 11
Figure 11
Expression of inflammation-related genes of hPDLCs (* p < 0.05 vs. control, # p < 0.05 vs. PLA): (A) IL-1β; (B) IL-6; (C) IL-8; (D) TLR-4; (E) TNF-α.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Expression of osteogenesis-related genes (* p < 0.05 vs. control, # p < 0.05 vs. PLA): (A) OPG; (B) OPN; (C) RUNX2.
Figure 13
Figure 13
Gross appearances of samples: (A) wound; (B) PLA; (C) hydrogels.
Figure 14
Figure 14
HE staining results (green arrows show the dividing line between materials and tissue): (A) control; (B) PLA; (C) 12.5 mg/mL hydrogel; (D) 25 mg/mL hydrogel; (E) 50 mg/mL hydrogel.
Figure 15
Figure 15
Transverse reconstructed micro-CT images: after seven days (AE) and 28 days (FJ); (A,F) control; (B,G) PLA; (C,H) 12.5 mg/mL hydrogel; (D,I) 25 mg/mL hydrogel; (E,J) 50 mg/mL hydrogel.
Figure 16
Figure 16
Micro-CT quantitative evaluation within the ROI (* p < 0.05 vs. control, # p < 0.05 vs. PLA): (A) 7 days and (B) 28 days BV/TV; (C) 7 days and (D) 28 days BMD.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 5 articles

References

    1. Williams R.C. Periodontal disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 1990;322:373–382. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199002083220606. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Brignardello-Petersen R. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and endodontic treatment affect incidence of tooth loss after periodontal treatment. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 2017;148:e43. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2017.02.009. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Nicholls C. Periodontal disease incidence, progression and rate of tooth loss in a general dental practice: The results of a 12-year retrospective analysis of patient’s clinical record. Br. Dent. J. 2003;194:485–488. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4810062. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Ferreira M.C., Dias-Pereira A.C., Branco-de-Almeida L.S., Martins C.C., Paiva S.M. Impact of periodontal disease on quality of life: A systematic review. J. Periodontal Res. 2017 doi: 10.1111/jre.12436. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Chen X., Wu G., Feng Z., Dong Y., Zhou W., Bai S.Z., Zhao Y. Advanced biomaterials and their potential applications in the treatment of periodontal disease. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 2016;36:760–775. - PubMed

MeSH terms

Feedback