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Review
, 76, 1369-1377

Bioactive Glass for Dentin Remineralization: A Systematic Review

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Review

Bioactive Glass for Dentin Remineralization: A Systematic Review

Delihta Fernando et al. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Strategies to achieve dentin remineralization is at present an important target of restorative dentistry. Remineralization of dentin by a bioactive material is complete only when the tissue regains its functionality. This is achieved when there is adequate apatite formation which most importantly translates into improved mechanical properties of dentin as a result of intrafibrillar mineralization. Bioactive glass (BAG) is a well-known implant material for bone regeneration and is proven to have excellent ability of apatite formation. Hence, recent studies have proposed BAGs as one of the most desired materials for remineralization of dentin. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to scope the evidence of bioactive glass to remineralize dentin.

Methods: The following research question was formulated: "Is there strong evidence for bioactive glass to remineralize dentin?" Three databases (Web of science, PubMed and Science direct) were scanned independently following PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set to identify relevant articles based on title and abstract screening. Finally, potentially relevant articles were downloaded and the full text was scrutinized to select the articles included in this review.

Results: The first phase of search returned 303 articles. A total of 19 papers with full text were scrutinized for inclusion, of which 3 papers were chosen for the final synthesis. All three studies confirm that BAG treatment leads to enhanced apatite formation in dentin. Only 1 of the 3 studies has reported the mechanical properties of dentin after BAG treatment and it revealed that the Young's modulus and flexural bend strength of BAG treated dentin were much lower than natural dentin even though they had similar apatite content.

Conclusions: This review highlights the importance of assessing the mechanical properties of dentin alongside to the newly formed apatite content in order to prove BAGs efficiency to remineralize this tissue. Though studies have confirmed that BAGs stimulate excellent apatite formation in dentin, it should be concluded that there isn't sufficient evidence for bioactive glass to effectively remineralize this tissue as the mechanical properties of the BAG treated dentin haven't been well explored.

Keywords: Bioactive glass; Dentin; Remineralization.

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