Bone mineral density in patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes

Pediatr Res. 2017 Sep;82(3):458-464. doi: 10.1038/pr.2017.117. Epub 2017 May 31.


BackgroundPatients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) may have several risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in IBMFS and determine the associated risk factors.MethodsPatients with IBMFS with at least one dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan were evaluated. Diagnosis of each IBMFS, Fanconi anemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome was confirmed by syndrome-specific tests. Data were gathered on age, height, and clinical history. DXA scans were completed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and forearm. BMD was adjusted for height (HAZ) in children (age ≤20 years). Low BMD was defined as a BMD Z-score and HAZ ≤-2 in adults and children, respectively, in addition to patients currently on bisphosphonate therapy.ResultsNine of thirty-five adults (26%) and eleven of forty children (27%) had low BMD. Adults with FA had significantly lower BMD Z-scores than those with other diagnoses; however, HAZ did not vary significantly in children by diagnosis. Risk factors included hypogonadism, iron overload, and glucocorticoid use.ConclusionsAdults and children with IBMFS have high prevalence of low BMD. Prompt recognition of risk factors and management are essential to optimize bone health.

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anemia, Aplastic / epidemiology
  • Anemia, Aplastic / genetics
  • Anemia, Aplastic / physiopathology*
  • Bone Density*
  • Bone Marrow Diseases / epidemiology
  • Bone Marrow Diseases / genetics
  • Bone Marrow Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Bone Marrow Failure Disorders
  • Child
  • Female
  • Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal / epidemiology
  • Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal / genetics
  • Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult

Supplementary concepts

  • Bone Marrow failure syndromes