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. 2017 May 10;9(5):482.
doi: 10.3390/nu9050482.

The Impact of Diet Wheat Source on the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-Lessons Learned From the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Model

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Free PMC article

The Impact of Diet Wheat Source on the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-Lessons Learned From the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Model

Jonathan Gorelick et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Nutrition, especially wheat consumption, is a major factor involved in the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases such as celiac. While modern wheat cultivars possess similar gliadin proteins associated with the onset of celiac disease and T1D, alternative dietary wheat sources from Israeli landraces and native ancestral species may be lacking the epitopes linked with T1D, potentially reducing the incidence of T1D. The Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse model was used to monitor the effects of dietary wheat sources on the onset and development of T1D. The effects of modern wheat flour were compared with those from either T. aestivum, T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides, or T. turgidum spp. dicoccum landraces or a non-wheat diet. Animals which received wheat from local landraces or ancestral species such as emmer displayed a lower incidence of T1D and related complications compared to animals fed a modern wheat variety. This study is the first report of the diabetogenic properties of various dietary wheat sources and suggests that alternative dietary wheat sources may lack T1D linked epitopes, thus reducing the incidence of T1D.

Keywords: Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse; Triticum dicoccoides; emmer; type 1 diabetes mellitus; wheat.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Onset of diabetes. Six week old female NOD mice received one of five different wheat diets for 14 weeks. The incidence of diabetes (a) was determined based on urine glucose (b) and fasting blood glucose levels (c). Data expressed in (b) and (c) represent the mean ± SE and (a) is the percentage of mice with elevated urine (>150 mg/dL) and fasting blood glucose levels (>130 mg/dL). Diets given: (1) low diabetogenic (non-wheat), (2) standard diabetogenic wheat bread, (3) T. aestivum landrace, (4) T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides landrace, and (5) T. turgidum spp. dicoccum landrace.
Figure 1
Figure 1
Onset of diabetes. Six week old female NOD mice received one of five different wheat diets for 14 weeks. The incidence of diabetes (a) was determined based on urine glucose (b) and fasting blood glucose levels (c). Data expressed in (b) and (c) represent the mean ± SE and (a) is the percentage of mice with elevated urine (>150 mg/dL) and fasting blood glucose levels (>130 mg/dL). Diets given: (1) low diabetogenic (non-wheat), (2) standard diabetogenic wheat bread, (3) T. aestivum landrace, (4) T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides landrace, and (5) T. turgidum spp. dicoccum landrace.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Glucose levels (mg/dL) in urine after 72 days. Diets given: (1) low diabetogenic (non-wheat), (2) standard diabetogenic wheat bread, (3) T. aestivum landrace, (4) T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides landrace, and (5) T. turgidum spp. dicoccum landrace.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) and cholesterol (mg/dL) levels after 72 days. Diets given: (1) low diabetogenic (non-wheat), (2) standard diabetogenic wheat bread, (3) T. aestivum landrace, (4) T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides landrace, and (5) T. turgidum spp. dicoccum landrace. Results are presented as means ± standard errors. Differences between Diets 1 and 2 and Diets 3–5 were significant (p < 0.001).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Fasting blood insulin (uIU/mL) levels after 72 days. Diets given: (1) low diabetogenic (non-wheat), (2) standard diabetogenic wheat bread, (3) T. aestivum landrace, (4) T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides landrace, and (5) T. turgidum spp. dicoccum landrace. Results are presented as means ± standard errors. Differences between Diets 1 and 2 and Diets 3–5 were significant (p < 0.001).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels (pg/mL) from blood collected on day 72. Results are presented as means ± standard errors. Differences between Diets 1 and 2 and Diets 3–5 were significant (p < 0.01).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ levels (pg/mL) from blood collected on day 72. Results are presented as means ± standard errors. Differences between Diets 1 and 2 and Diets 3–5 were significant (p < 0.001).

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