Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study-Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 May 11;14(5):513. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14050513.


The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18-25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG), pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001) and osmolality (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001). The percentage of the variances in daily total fluid intake (R²) explained by PLS (partial least squares) model with seven urinary biomarkers was 68.9%; two urine biomarkers-24-h urine volume and osmolality-were identified as possible key predictors. The daily total fluid intake for assessing optimal hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status.

Keywords: fluid intake; hydration; urine osmolality.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • China
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Drinking*
  • Eating
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Osmolar Concentration
  • Specific Gravity
  • Water-Electrolyte Balance*
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers