MAIT cells and MR1-antigen recognition

Curr Opin Immunol. 2017 Jun;46:66-74. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2017.04.002. Epub 2017 May 8.

Abstract

Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are innate-like T cells that recognise antigens presented by the monomorphic MHC-I related molecule, MR1. Distinct from the conventional MHC-restricted T cell system, MR1 presents small-molecule precursors, derived from microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin, to activate the innate MAIT cell effector potential. Recent data demonstrates how: vitamin B precursors modulate intracellular trafficking of MR1 and impact on MAIT cell development; variation in the MAIT cell antigen receptor sequence impacts MR1-antigen recognition; and most notably, how MR1 can capture chemical identities distinct from riboflavin precursors, including drugs and drug-like molecules. With mounting evidence demonstrating their roles in immunity and pathology, understanding the MAIT-MR1-antigen axis may have profound implications for human diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation / immunology
  • Bacterial Infections
  • Disease Susceptibility / immunology
  • Disease Susceptibility / metabolism
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / chemistry
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / immunology*
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Minor Histocompatibility Antigens / chemistry
  • Minor Histocompatibility Antigens / immunology*
  • Minor Histocompatibility Antigens / metabolism
  • Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells / immunology*
  • Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / chemistry
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism*
  • Vitamin B Complex / immunology*
  • Vitamin B Complex / metabolism

Substances

  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • MR1 protein, human
  • Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • Vitamin B Complex