Bioaccumulation and elimination of bisphenol a (BPA) in the alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and the potential for trophic transfer to the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus

Environ Pollut. 2017 Aug;227:460-467. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.05.010. Epub 2017 May 7.


In this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation and elimination of 14C-labeled BPA by the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and the subsequent transfer of 14C-BPA residues from the contaminated alga to the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. After 10 days of BPA exposure, the algal cells accumulated 15% of the initial radioactivity from the medium, with 71% of the accumulated radioactivity occurring in the form of non-extractable bound residues. An approximate steady state of the accumulation of the 14C-BPA residues in the algae was reached after about 4 days of exposure. The bioconcentration factor of total radioactivity in the algae was 106 mL (g dry weight)-1 at steady state. During the elimination phase, only the extractable residues were released from the algae into the water whereas the bound residues, following their ingestion by the rotifers, were converted to extractable forms and then also released. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the biomagnification of BPA-related residues in the food chain between algae and rotifers. The trophic transfer of these BPA-derived residues from the algae to rotifers and thus the environmental hazard may posed by this pathway, because of subsequent effects on the food chain.

Keywords: (14)C-BPA; Alga; Biomagnification; Bound residues; Trophic transfer.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / metabolism*
  • Chlorella / metabolism*
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Food Chain*
  • Phenols / metabolism*
  • Rotifera / metabolism


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A