Introduction: The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which accounts for more than 80% of all kidney cancers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the presence of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for the treatment of RCC. Materials and Methods: Human embryonic kidney (HEK) cancer cells were divided into 6 groups. Various tests were performed on HEK cells in the presence of RF and GNPs. In order to investigate the radiation effects on the cells' survival, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-iphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay was performed at different days during and post-irradiation period. The repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was used for statistical analysis of the cells' survival using SPSS version 16.0. A significant level of 0.05 was considered to the tests. Results: Using the ANOVA test, a significant decrease in cell's survival was seen in the RF exposed group 3 compared to the control group (P=0.035). While, differences were not significant between RF exposed group 2 and the control group (P>0.05). A significant decrease in cell's survival in the RF exposed groups 5 (P=0.025) and 6 (P=0.018) at the presence of GNP compared to the control group was seen. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that, this method can be efficiently used for RCC treatment as an alternative to nephrectomy. More follow up in vivo studies on mammalians are needed to investigate the potential of the presented method for clinical applications.
Keywords: Cancer; Gold nanoparticles; Radiofrequency radiation; Renal cell carcinoma; Synergic effects.