Neuropathic pain is a nerve disorder characterized by the dysregulation of ion channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. MicroRNAs (miRs) may be associated with the molecular mechanisms underlying the altered levels of ion channels; however, the molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, the present study conducted a genomic analysis of miR between a unilateral spared nerve injury (SNI) model and sham control. Differentially expressed miRs between the SNI and sham groups were selected for transfection of DRG cells, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array analysis was subsequently performed. A total of three significantly differently expressed genes were selected from the results of the PCR array and further analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR. Genomic analysis revealed that Mus musculus miR‑449a (mmu‑miR‑449a) was reduced in the SNI groups compared with the sham controls. The PCR array indicated that mmu‑miR‑449a‑transfection reduced the mRNA expression levels of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1), and calcium‑activated potassium channel subunit α‑1 (KCNMA1) and increased the level of transmembrane phosphatase with tension homology (TPTE) in the DRG cells (P<0.05). qRT‑PCR analysis further indicated that mmu‑miR‑449a transfection caused similar alterations in the mRNA expression levels of TRPA1, KCNMA1 and TPTE in DRG cells, respectively (P<0.05). Therefore, mmu‑miR‑449a may ameliorate neuropathic pain by decreasing the activity of the channel proteins TRPA1 and KCNMA1 and increasing the levels of TPTE. mmu‑miR‑449a may be a potential therapeutic molecule for the alleviation of neuropathic pain.