Lactobacillus paracasei GMNL-32, Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-89 and L. reuteri GMNL-263 ameliorate hepatic injuries in lupus-prone mice

Br J Nutr. 2017 Apr;117(8):1066-1074. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001039. Epub 2017 May 15.


Probiotics are known to regulate host immunity by interacting with systemic and mucosal immune cells as well as intestinal epithelial cells. Supplementation with certain probiotics has been reported to be effective against various disorders, including immune-related diseases. However, little is known about the effectiveness of Lactobacillus paracasei GMNL-32 (GMNL-32), Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-89 (GMNL-89) and L. reuteri GMNL-263 (GMNL-263) in the management of autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). NZB/W F1 mice, which are a lupus-prone animal model, were orally gavaged with GMNL-32, GMNL-89 or GMNL-263 to investigate the effects of these Lactobacillus strains on liver injuries in NZB/W F1 mice. The results thus obtained reveal that supplementary GMNL-32, GMNL-89 or GMNL-263 in NZB/W F1 mice ameliorates hepatic apoptosis and inflammatory indicators, such as matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and C-reactive protein and inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions. In addition, supplementation with GMNL-32, GMNL-89 or GMNL-263 in NZB/W F1 mice reduced the expressions of hepatic IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α proteins by suppressing the mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signalling pathways. These findings, presented here for the first time, reveal that GMNL-32, GMNL-89 and GMNL-263 mitigate hepatic inflammation and apoptosis in lupus-prone mice and may support an alternative remedy for liver disorders in cases of SLE.

Keywords: Lactobacillus paracasei GMNL-32; Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263; Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-89; CRP C-reactive protein; ERK extracellular signal-regulated kinase; GMNL-263 Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263; GMNL-32 Lactobacillus paracasei GMNL-32; GMNL-89 Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-89; IKK IκB kinase; JNK c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase; MMP matrix metalloproteinase; SLE systemic lupus erythematosus; TUNEL terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling; iNOS inducible nitric oxide synthase; Liver disorders; Probiotics; Systemic lupus erythematosus.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Hepatocytes / microbiology
  • Hepatocytes / physiology
  • Lactobacillus paracasei / classification*
  • Lactobacillus reuteri
  • Liver Diseases / etiology*
  • Liver Diseases / prevention & control
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / complications*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred NZB
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism
  • Probiotics
  • Random Allocation
  • Signal Transduction


  • Cytokines
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9