Minimal food effect for eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bioavailability from omega-3-acid ethyl esters with an Advanced Lipid TechnologiesTM (ALT®)-based formulation

J Clin Lipidol. 2017 Mar-Apr;11(2):394-405. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2017.01.017. Epub 2017 Feb 9.


Background: The absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) omega-3-acid ethyl esters (EEs) is influenced by food. There is a need for a formulation of EE that is less impacted by food effect. SC401 is a novel Advanced Lipid Technologies-based formulation of EPA-EE and DHA-EE. In the presence of an aqueous medium, Advanced Lipid Technologies forms stable micelles in situ independent of bile salt secretion. This effect is hypothesized to improve EPA-EE and DHA-EE bioavailability while it helps mitigate the food effect associated with their consumption.

Objective: The aim of the article was to assess the effect of food on the bioavailability of DHA and EPA after a single oral dose of 1530 mg omega-3 fatty acids EE (SC401) in 24 healthy subjects under fasted and low-fat (9% of total calories from fat) and high-fat (50% of total calories from fat) meal conditions.

Methods: This was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, 3-period, 3-way crossover study. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analyses were taken at predose and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours postdose. To assess the safety of the intervention, active monitoring of adverse events, physical examinations, vital signs, clinical laboratory assessments (chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis), and 12-lead electrocardiograms were conducted.

Results: SC401 showed high bioavailability of both EPA and DHA in fasted, low-fat meal, and high-fat meal conditions. No differences were found in SC401 DHA AUC0-t (t = 24 hours) among the 3 conditions (91.69% high-fat/fasted, 97.12% low-fat/fasted, and 105.92% low-fat/high-fat; P > .05 in all cases). In contrast, SC401 EPA AUC0-t was affected by food intake (179.06% high-fat/fasted, P < .0001; 150.05% low-fat/fasted, P < .0001) and the amount of fat taken with SC401 (83.80% low-fat/high-fat; P = .0009). SC401 was safe and well tolerated.

Conclusions: A single dose of SC401 resulted in high levels of EPA and DHA total lipids in plasma in fasting and fed conditions. SC401 overcame the food effect for DHA and partially ameliorated it for EPA. SC401 represents a convenient option for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia, especially for patients under a restricted intake of dietary fat.

Keywords: Advanced Lipid Technologies; Bioavailability; Docosahexaenoic acid; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Food-effect; Omega-3 fatty acids.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biological Availability
  • Diet, High-Fat
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids / adverse effects
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids / chemistry*
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids / pharmacokinetics*
  • Drug Compounding*
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid / adverse effects
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid / chemistry*
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid / pharmacokinetics*
  • Esters / chemistry*
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Food*
  • Humans
  • Male


  • Esters
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids
  • Eicosapentaenoic Acid