The prevalence of malnutrition has declined significantly over the last 30 years. Despite this, malnutrition remains a major cause of illness and death among children worldwide, particularly in low- and medium-income countries. Marasmus and kwashiorkor are the most life-threatening forms of malnutrition. Treatment protocols enable effective treatment, but only a minority of malnourished children have access to treatment. Furthermore, treating children with complicated malnutrition requiring hospitalization remains a clinical challenge.