Alzheimer's disease (AD), the main form of dementia in the elderly, is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by rapidly progressive cognitive dysfunction and behavior impairment. AD exhibits a considerable heritability and great advances have been made in approaches to searching the genetic etiology of AD. In AD genetic studies, methods have developed from classic linkage-based and candidate-gene-based association studies to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and next generation sequencing (NGS). The identification of new susceptibility genes has provided deeper insights to understand the mechanisms underlying AD. In addition to searching novel genes associated with AD in large samples, the NGS technologies can also be used to shed light on the 'black matter' discovery even in smaller samples. The shift in AD genetics between traditional studies and individual sequencing will allow biomaterials of each patient as the central unit of genetic studies. This review will cover genetic findings in AD and consequences of AD genetic findings. Firstly, we will discuss the discovery of mutations in APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, APOE, and ADAM10. Then we will summarize and evaluate the information obtained from GWAS of AD. Finally, we will outline the efforts to identify rare variants associated with AD using NGS.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; genetics; genome-wide association studies; linkage studies; next generation sequencing.