Intellectual disability (ID) is a complex and phenotypically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significant deficits in cognitive and adaptive skills, debuting during the developmental period. In the last decade, microarray-based copy number variation (CNV) analysis has been proved as a strategy particularly useful in the discovery of loci and candidate genes associated with these phenotypes and is widely used in the clinics with a diagnostic purpose. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of two genome-wide high density SNP microarrays -Cytogenetics Whole-Genome 2.7M SNP array (n=126 patients; Group 1) and CytoScan High-Density SNP array (n=447 patients; Group 2)- in the detection of clinically relevant CNVs in a cohort of ID patients from Galicia (NW Spain). In 159 (27.7%) patients, we detected 186 rare exonic chromosomal imbalances, that were grouped into the following classes: Clinically relevant (67/186; 36.0%), of unknown clinical significance (93/186; 50.0%) and benign (26/186; 14.0%). The 67 pathogenic CNVs were identified in 64 patients, which means an overall diagnostic yield of 11.2%. Overall, we confirmed that ID is a genetically heterogeneous condition and emphasized the importance of using genome-wide high density SNP microarrays in the detection of its genetic causes. Additionally, we provided clinical and molecular data of patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CNVs and discussed the potential implication in neurodevelopmental disorders of genes located within these variants.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; Chromosome microarray analysis; Diagnostic yield; Global developmental delay; SNP microarray.
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