Establishing Content Validity of the CLEFT-Q: A New Patient-reported Outcome Instrument for Cleft Lip/Palate

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2017 Apr 25;5(4):e1305. doi: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000001305. eCollection 2017 Apr.


Background: The CLEFT-Q is a new patient-reported outcome instrument designed to measure outcomes that matter to patients. The aim of this qualitative study was to establish content validity of the CLEFT-Q in patients who differ by age and culture.

Methods: Patients aged between 6 and 29 years were recruited from plastic surgery clinics in Canada, India, Ireland, the Philippines, the Netherlands and the United States. Healthcare providers and other experts participated in a focus group or provided individual feedback. Input was sought on all aspects of the CLEFT-Q (item wording, instructions, and response options), and to identify missing content. Patient interviews and expert feedback took place between September 2013 and September 2014.

Results: Sixty-nine patients and 44 experts participated. The first draft of the CLEFT-Q consisted of 163 items measuring 12 constructs. The first round of feedback identified 92 items that required revision. In total, 3 rounds of interviews, and the involvement of an artist to create pictures for 17 items, were needed to establish content validity. At the conclusion of cognitive interviews, the CLEFT-Q consisted of 13 scales (total 171 items) that measure appearance, health-related quality of life, and facial function. The mean Flesch-Kincaid readability statistic for items was 1.4 (0 to 5.2).

Conclusion: Cognitive interviews and expert review allowed us to identify items that required re-wording, re-conceptualizing, or to be removed, as well as any missing items. This process was useful for refining the CLEFT-Q scales for further testing.