An overview of female-to-male gender-confirming surgery

Nat Rev Urol. 2017 Aug;14(8):486-500. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2017.64. Epub 2017 May 16.


Gender dysphoria is estimated to occur in approximately 25 million people worldwide, and can have severe psychosocial sequelae. Medical and surgical gender transition can substantially improve quality-of-life outcomes for individuals with gender dysphoria. Individuals seeking to undergo female-to-male (FtM) transition have various surgical options available for gender confirmation, including facial and chest masculinization, body contouring, and genital surgery. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health guidelines should be met before the patient undergoes surgery, to ensure that gender-confirming surgery is appropriate and indicated. Chest masculinization and metoidioplasty or phalloplasty are the most common procedures pursued, and both generally result in high levels of patient satisfaction. Phalloplasty, with a resultant aesthetic and sensate phallus along with implantable prosthetic, can take upwards of a year to accomplish, and is associated with a considerable risk of complications. Urethral complications are most frequent, and can be addressed with revision procedures. A number of scaffolds, implants, and prostheses are now in development to improve outcomes in FtM patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Gender Dysphoria / diagnosis*
  • Gender Dysphoria / psychology
  • Gender Dysphoria / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Satisfaction*
  • Quality of Life / psychology
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / methods*
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / psychology
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / trends