Objective: This phase I study of ZYAN1 was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics following oral administration in healthy volunteers.
Methods: The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I study carried out in two parts in addition to a third part involving an open-label study to evaluate the food/sex effect. A total of 100 subjects were enrolled into the study as follows: part I-single-dose study with ZYAN1 10, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 mg (n = 56); part II-multiple-dose study with every other day dosing of ZYAN1 100, 150, 200, and 300 mg (n = 32); and part III-sex and food effect study with ZYAN1 150 mg (n = 12; open-label).
Results: ZYAN1 was well-tolerated after single and multiple oral ascending doses. No drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Following a single ascending dose of ZYAN1, the maximum concentration (C max) ranged from 566.47 ± 163.03 to 17,858.33 ± 2899.19 ng/mL and the median time to C max (t max) was approximately 2.5 h for the studied 30-fold oral doses of ZYAN1. Regardless of single or multiple doses, mean C max and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to time t (AUC t ) values generally showed a dose-proportional increase. The mean elimination half-life (t ½) of ZYAN1 ranged from 6.9 to 13 h with negligible accumulation. Following a single dose of ZYAN1, the mean serum erythropoietin (EPO) C max values showed dose response (i.e., 6.6 and 79.9 mIU/L for 10 and 300 mg ZYAN1 doses, respectively), while the time to mean maximal serum EPO concentrations ranged from 10 to 72 h.
Conclusion: Oral single (10-300 mg) and multiple dosing (100-300 mg) of ZYAN1 in healthy subjects was found to be safe and well-tolerated. With increasing ZYAN1 dose, there was almost a proportional increase in mean C max and AUC t . The mean serum EPO concentrations showed a trend of dose response. Based on the t ½, pharmacodynamic activity, and lack of drug accumulation, a once every 2 days dosing regimen of ZYAN1 was appropriate for phase II study.
Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry trial ID ACTRN12614001240639.