Background: Malignancies and lymphoma are common complications after kidney transplantation. However, no link has been made between the incidence of malignancies and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in this setting. This case-controlled study compared the incidence of malignancies, including lymphoma, between kidney transplant (KT) patients with or without HCV replication.
Patients and methods: A total of 99 HCV-positive RNA-positive KT patients were matched with 198 (1:2) anti-HCV-negative patients according to age, gender, and date of transplantation, and were followed for 145.8±78.4 months.
Results: During the follow-up period, 28 HCV-positive (28%) cases developed at least one cancer, and 64 (32%) patients developed cancer in the HCV-negative group (P=not significant [ns]). Survival without a cancer was similar between both groups. Thirteen HCV-positive patients (13%) developed at least one solid cancer vs 29 (15%) HCV-negative patients (P=ns). Survival without a solid cancer was similar between both groups. Three patients from the HCV-positive and 4 from the HCV-negative group developed a lymphoma. Only 2 patients from the HCV group died from hepatocellular carcinoma. Survival without a skin cancer was similar between both groups. Patient and death-censored graft survival rates were significantly lower in the HCV group.
Conclusion: The incidences and types of malignancies were similar in the HCV-positive and HCV-negative KT patients.
Keywords: cancer; hepatitis C virus; kidney transplantation; lymphoma; survival.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.