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, 17 (1), 267

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Gastric Anti-Ulcer Activity of Phyllanthus Niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves in Experimental Rats

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Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Gastric Anti-Ulcer Activity of Phyllanthus Niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves in Experimental Rats

Ronia Mostofa et al. BMC Complement Altern Med.

Abstract

Background: The medicinal plants signify a massive basin of potential phytoconstituents that could be valuable as a substitute to allopathic drugs or considered as an analogue in drug development. Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) is generally used in traditional medicine to treat ulcer and inflammation. In this project we investigated the methanolic extract of leaves of Phyllanthus niruri for anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity.

Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Phyllanthus niruri leaves was evaluated at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. while using ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, p.o) as the standard drug. The animals used were Swiss albino rats. Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v) into the left hind paw. Paw tissues from the different groups were examined for inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of P. niruri leaves at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. were examined against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the Swiss albino rats - keeping omeprazole (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as reference. The rats were dissected and the stomachs were macroscopically examined to identify hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa.

Results: P. niruri significantly (p < 0.01) decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema; it exhibited a reduction of 46.80%, 55.32% and 69.14% at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. These findings were further supported by the histological study. The methanolic extract also disclosed good protective effect against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Administration of the extract's doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the ethanol- acid induced gastric erosion in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. The methanolic extract at the higher dose (400 mg/kg) resulted in better inhibition of ethanol-acid induced gastric ulcer as compare to omeprazole (20 mg/kg). Histological studies of the gastric wall revealed that toxic control rats revealed mucosal degeneration, ulceration and migration of numerous inflammatory cells throughout the section. On the other hand, MEPN treatment groups showed significant regeneration of mucosal layer and significantly prevented the formation of hemorrhage and edema.

Conclusions: The investigation suggests that methanolic extract of P. niruri leaf possess anti-inflammatory activity and promotes ulcer protection as ascertained by regeneration of mucosal layer and substantial prevention of the formation of hemorrhage and edema.

Keywords: Anti-Ulcer; Anti-inflammatory; Phyllanthus niruri; Phytochemical.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Effect of methanolic extract of P. niruri on carrageenan induced paw edema after 6 h. a = Normal control: no erythema and inflammation were observed. b Carrageenan control: severe erythema and swelling were observed. c 20 mg/kg ibuprofen: mild amount of erythema and swelling were observed. d 100 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. niruri: moderate amount of erythema and swelling were observed e 200 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. niruri: moderate amount of erythema and swelling were observed. f 400 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. niruri: mild amount of erythema and swelling were observed. The small arrow indicates the absence of swelling and erythema whereas the large arrow indicates severe swelling and erythema in the rats paw
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Histological evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of P. niruri a Normal control, b Carrageenan control, c 20 mg/kg ibuprofen, d 100 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. niruri, e 200 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. niruri, f 400 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. niruri. Each group was assessed at 400× magnification, scale bar: 20 μm; “I” indicates numerous infiltrations of inflammatory cells in the specimen from the rats paw tissue
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Gross appearance of the gastric mucosa. a Normal control: no mucosal damage was observed, b Ethanol control: marked ulcers along with hemorrhagic streaks and mucosal damage were observed, c 20 mg/kg omeprazole, mild injuries were observed in the gastric mucosa as compared to the ethanol control group, d 100 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. Niruri : moderately reduced gastric mucosal damage and ulcers were observed, e 200 mg/kg ethanolic extract of P. Niruri: significantly reduced gastric mucosal damage and ulcers were observed, f 400 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. Niruri: no damage to the gastric mucosa was observed and gastric mucosa appeared flat as compared to the ethanol control. “I” indicates gastric mucosal damage and hemorrhagic streaks
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Histological evaluation of anti-ulcer effect of methanolic extract of P. niruri. a Normal control, b Ethanol control, c 20 mg/kg omeprazole, d 100 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. Niruri , e 200 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. Niruri, f 400 mg/kg methanolic extract of P. Niruri. Each group was assessed at 400× magnification, scale bar: 20 μm; “I” indicates normal gastric mucosa, “J” indicates degeneration of gastric mucosa and infiltration of inflammatory cells frequently observed in the specimen from the stomach, “K” indicates almost complete regeneration of gastric mucosa

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