Inflammatory choroidal neovascularization in Indian eyes: Etiology, clinical features, and outcomes to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017 Apr;65(4):295-300. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_262_16.


Background and objectives: The aim was to study the clinical profile of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and its treatment response to intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab on pro re nata (PRN) basis in Indian eyes.

Materials and methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients with inflammatory CNV treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India between 2009 and 2014. The data about clinical features, investigations, treatment, and outcomes were obtained from the medical records. We included patients with active inflammatory CNV but with no evidence of inflammation and were treated with anti-VEGF alone, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Main outcome measures were a clinical and etiological profile of inflammatory CNV in Indian eyes and their response to treatment.

Results: Thirty eyes of 28 patients were included in the study. The mean follow-up was 17.93 ± 14.28 months (range 6-53 months). In our cohort, seven (23.33%) eyes had inflammatory CNV secondary to idiopathic choroiditis, four (13.33%) eyes had toxoplasmosis, idiopathic panuveitis, and Vogt Koyanaki Harada's disease each. Three (10%) eyes had geographic helicoid peripapillary choroidopathy and tubercular choroiditis each. Remaining two (6.66%) eyes had punctate inner choroidopathy, while multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis, resolved endogenous endophthalmitis and Hansen's diseases were the etiology in one (3.33%) case of inflammatory CNV each. The mean number of injections were 2.76 (range 1-5). Among thirty eyes of inflammatory CNV, 16 (53.3%) eyes showed improvement, eight (26.6%) maintained the same vision, whereas six (20%) eyes showed deterioration of vision. Interpretations and Conclusion: Idiopathic choroiditis was the most common cause of inflammatory CNV and PRN intravitreal anti-VEGF (ranibizumab or bevacizumab) appears to have effective treatment response.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Bevacizumab / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / diagnosis
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / drug therapy
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • India / epidemiology
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ranibizumab / administration & dosage*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Young Adult


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Bevacizumab
  • Ranibizumab