1. The effects of chronic dietary supplementation with omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelium-dependent relaxations were examined in isolated coronary microvessels of the pig. 2. Animals were maintained for four weeks with or without dietary supplementation of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (3.5 g daily) and docosahexaenoic acid (1.5 g daily). Fatty acid profiles of plasma lipids showed that only the fraction of eicosapentaenoic acid increased by the treatment, together with a decrease of that of arachidonic acid. 3. In the treated group, endothelium-dependent relaxations to bradykinin were significantly augmented, while contractions to acetylcholine or relaxations to nitroprusside were unaltered. 4. These results indicate that dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly eicosapentaenoic acid) augment endothelium-dependent relaxations in coronary microvessels of the pig, without changing the ability of vascular smooth muscle to contract or relax.