The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention

Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017 Jun;18(2):153-165. doi: 10.1007/s11154-017-9424-1.


Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is a global health issue that afflicts more than one billion children and adults worldwide. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency cannot be under estimated. There has been an association of vitamin D deficiency with a myriad of acute and chronic illnesses including preeclampsia, childhood dental caries, periodontitis, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, deadly cancers, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders. This review is to put into perspective the controversy surrounding the definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency as well as providing guidance for how to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency.

Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Rickets; Sunlight; Vitamin D deficiency; Vitamin D insufficiency; Vitamin D toxicity; Vitamin D2; Vitamin D3.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Pandemics
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin D / analysis
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D / toxicity
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / diagnosis*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / epidemiology*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / prevention & control
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / therapy*


  • Vitamin D