Access and response to direct antiviral agents (DAA) in HIV-HCV co-infected patients in Italy: Data from the Icona cohort

PLoS One. 2017 May 17;12(5):e0177402. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177402. eCollection 2017.

Abstract

Background: Real-life data on access and response to direct antiviral agents (DAA) in HIV-HCV coinfected individuals are lacking.

Methods: HCV viremic, HIV-positive patients from Icona and Hepaicona cohorts naïve to DAA by January 2013 were included. Access and predictors of starting DAA were evaluated. Switches of antiretroviral drugs at starting DAA were described. We calculated sustained virological response (SVR12) in those reaching 12 weeks after end-of-treatment (EOT), and defined treatment failure (TF) as discontinuation of DAA before EOT or non-SVR12. Statistical analyses included Kaplan-Meier curves, univariable and multivariable analyses evaluating predictors of access to DAA and of treatment outcome (non-SVR and TF).

Results: 2,607 patients included. During a median follow-up of 38 (IQR:30-41) months, 920 (35.3%) patients started DAA. Eligibility for reimbursement was the strongest predictor to access to treatment: 761/1,090 (69.8%) eligible and 159/1,517 (10.5%) non-eligible to DAA reimbursement. Older age, HIV-RNA≤50 copies/mL were associated to faster DAA initiation, higher CD4 count and HCV-genotype 3 with delayed DAA initiation in those eligible to DAA reimbursement. Up to 28% of patients (36% of those on ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, PI/r) underwent antiretroviral (ART) modification at DAA initiation. 545/595 (91.6%) patients reaching EOT achieved SVR12. Overall, TF occurred in 61/606 patients (10.1%), with 11 discontinuing DAA before EOT. Suboptimal DAA was the only independent predictor of both non-SVR12 (AHR 2.52, 95%CI:1.24-5.12) and TF (AHR: 2.19; 95%CI:1.13-4.22).

Conclusions: Only 35.3% had access to HCV treatment. Despite excellent rates of SVR12 rates (91.6%), only 21% (545/2,607) of our HIV-HCV co-infected patients are cured.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Coinfection*
  • Comorbidity
  • Disease Management
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • Health Services Accessibility*
  • Hepacivirus / genetics
  • Hepatitis C / drug therapy*
  • Hepatitis C / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Failure
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Viral Load

Substances

  • Antiviral Agents

Grant support

The authors received no specific funding for this work.