Sleeve Gastrectomy Postoperative Hemorrhage is Linked to Type-2 Diabetes and Not to Surgical Technique

Obes Surg. 2017 Nov;27(11):2927-2932. doi: 10.1007/s11695-017-2731-5.

Abstract

Background: The degree, prevalence, and risk factors linked to sleeve gastrectomy (SG) postoperative hemorrhage (POH) have not been fully defined.

Methods: An analysis was conducted on a prospectively collected database of 394 consecutive primary SGs performed in a single practice from January 2014 to December 2015.

End points: (1) acute POH, defined by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and/or re-exploration; (2) subclinical POH, defined by postoperative hemoglobin drop (HgbD) >one standard deviation above mean. Variables tested included three surgical techniques: normal stapling (n = 137), "tight" stapling, (n = 142) and oversewing, (n = 115); age; gender; body mass index (BMI); co-morbidities; and elevated postoperative systolic blood pressure.

Results: Acute POH occurred in 11/394 patients (2.8%) and subclinical POH (HgbD > 2.2 g/dL) was detected in 27/312 (7.7%) of patients with available HgbD data. Acute POH patients had a mean HgbD of 5.43 ± 1.40 g/dl (p < 0.001) reflecting approximately 38.6% ± 10.0% of total blood volume. No difference in prevalence of POH was observed for the different surgical techniques. Compared with non-bleeders (n = 312), acute and subclinical POH patients (n = 38) had 52.6 vs. 27.2% prevalence type-2 diabetes (T2D) and 60.5 vs. 40.1% prevalence of dyslipidemia and higher mean preoperative hemoglobin 14.3 ± 11 vs.13.5 ± 1.2 (p < 0.05 for all). On regression analysis, only T2D (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.6) and higher level of preoperative hemoglobin (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.3-2.4) were independent risk factors for POH.

Conclusion: In this study, acute and subclinical POH were primarily linked to T2D and not to surgical techniques. Special consideration is recommended for patients with T2D undergoing SG.

Keywords: Bleeding; Complications; Dyslipidemia; Hemorrhage; Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Oversewing; Oversuturing; Staple line reinforcement; Subclinical hemorrhage; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Body Mass Index
  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / surgery
  • Female
  • Gastrectomy / adverse effects*
  • Gastrectomy / methods
  • Gastrectomy / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy / adverse effects
  • Laparoscopy / methods
  • Laparoscopy / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity, Morbid / complications
  • Obesity, Morbid / epidemiology*
  • Obesity, Morbid / surgery*
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage / epidemiology*
  • Postoperative Hemorrhage / etiology*
  • Postoperative Period
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Surgical Stapling / adverse effects
  • Surgical Stapling / methods
  • Surgical Stapling / statistics & numerical data