Racial and ethnic differences in treatment outcomes among adults with stimulant use disorders after a dosed exercise intervention

J Ethn Subst Abuse. Oct-Dec 2017;16(4):495-510. doi: 10.1080/15332640.2017.1317310. Epub 2017 May 19.


The current study examined differences in substance abuse treatment outcomes among racial and ethnic groups enrolled in the Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) trial, a multisite randomized clinical trial implemented through the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA's) Clinical Trials Network (CTN). STRIDE aimed to test vigorous exercise as a novel approach to the treatment of stimulant abuse compared to a health education intervention. A hurdle model with a complier average causal effects (CACE) adjustment was used to provide an unbiased estimate of the exercise effect had all participants been adherent to exercise. Among 214 exercise-adherent participants, we found significantly lower probability of use for Blacks (z = -2.45, p = .014) and significantly lower number of days of use for Whites compared to Hispanics (z = -54.87, p = <.001) and for Whites compared to Blacks (z = -28.54, p = <.001), which suggests that vigorous, regular exercise might improve treatment outcomes given adequate levels of adherence.

Keywords: Ethnicity; exercise; race; stimulant use disorder; stimulants.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Amphetamine-Related Disorders / ethnology
  • Amphetamine-Related Disorders / therapy*
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / ethnology
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / therapy*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • Exercise Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Health Education / methods*
  • Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult