Differential diagnosis for pythiosis using thermophilic helicase DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism (tHDA-RFLP)

Med Mycol. 2018 Feb 1;56(2):216-224. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myx033.


Pythiosis is caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like microbe belonging to the kingdom Stramenopila. Its diagnosis is challenging due to clinical and histopathological similarities with the fungal microbes that cause mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis. In addition, the proper identification of P. insidiosum in the clinical laboratory is difficult. We have developed a rapid and accurate, species-specific identification method using a thermophilic helicase DNA amplification (tHDA) technique, to differentiate this pathogen from closely related pathogenic fungi. Sixty-seven fungal isolates, including 39 of P. insidiosum, were evaluated. A 91 base-pair (bp) DNA fragment was consistently amplified using a COX2 primer. The limiting concentrations of the one- and two-step tHDA protocols were 100 picograms (1.74 × 102 copies) and 100 femtograms (1.74 × 10-1 copies), respectively. The CviKI-1 enzyme in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the 91 bp amplicons accurately separated P. insidiosum from other fungal species. The data suggest that this tHDA-RFLP assay is a rapid and accurate test for the identification of P. insidiosum. The potential use of the assay directly in clinical samples is also discussed.

Keywords: Pythium insidiosum; restriction fragment length polymorphism; thermophilic helicase DNA amplification.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA / genetics*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Fungi / genetics
  • Humans
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length / genetics*
  • Pythiosis / diagnosis*
  • Pythium / enzymology
  • Pythium / genetics*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • DNA