Consensus on Initiation and Intensification of Premix Insulin in Type 2 Diabetes Management

J Assoc Physicians India. 2017 Apr;65(4):59-73.


Introduction: Premix insulin is the most commonly used insulin preparation in India. The first Indian premix guidelines were developed in 2009 and thereafter were updated in 2013. There is a need to revisit the Indian premix insulin guidelines, in view of emerging evidence and introduction of newer co-formulations.

Objective: The present consensus has been developed to evaluate available premix formulations, examine existing evidence related to premix formulations, and evolve consensus statement of recommendations on the topic.

Methods: A meeting of experts from across India was conducted at Chennai in July 2016. The expert committee evaluated each premix insulin regimen with reference to 1) Current recommendations by various guidelines, 2) Approved pack inserts and 3) Published scientific literature. The information was debated and discussed within the expert group committee, to arrive at seven consensus-based recommendations for initiation and intensification with premix insulin.

Results: Recommendations based on consensus on initiation and intensification of premix insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management were developed for the following situations. 1) Initiation of premix insulin co-formulation at diagnosis, 2) Initiation of once daily (OD) premix insulin/co-formulation, 3) Initiation of twice daily (BID) premix insulin/co-formulation 4) Intensification with BID and thrice daily (TID) premix insulin/co-formulation. Three recommendations pertained to the use of premix insulin in other forms of diabetes, or in specific situations: 5) Use of premix insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus 6) Use of premix insulin in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) 7) Premix insulin use during Ramadan.

Conclusions: In the setting of high carbohydrate consumption in India, or in patients with predominant post prandial hyperglycemia, premix insulin/co-formulation can offer effective and convenient glycemic control. This paper will help healthcare practitioners initiate and intensify premix insulin effectively.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Drug Combinations
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / analogs & derivatives
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic


  • Drug Combinations
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human