Background and aims: The aim of this study was to determine whether oral health is uniformly associated with three different cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure (HF), which has not been studied previously.
Methods: A full mouth investigation was performed in 8999 individuals referred to a specialized periodontology clinic between 1979 and 2012. The number of deepened pockets (NDP), number of teeth (NT), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were investigated. Incident CVD diagnosis was obtained from the Swedish cause of death and the hospital discharge registers.
Results: During a median follow-up time of 15.8 years (153,103 person years at risk), 1338 incident cases of fatal/non-fatal CVD occurred (672 fatal/non-fatal MI, 545 stroke and 302 HF). When NT, BOP and NDP were all included in the same model with age, sex, smoking, calendar time, and education level, NT and NDP, but not BOP, were significantly related to future CVD (combined end-point, p = 0.0003 for NT and p = 0.007 for NDP). In similar analyses of 3 separate CVD outcomes, NT was significantly related to MI, with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) for a given interquartile range change of 0.90 (95% CI 0.82-0.99) and to HF, with an IRR of 0.87 (95% CI 0.77-0.99). However, NT was not significantly related to stroke. BOP and NDP were not significantly related to any of the three separate CVD outcomes.
Conclusion: Oral health, mainly represented by NT, was related to incident MI and HF, but not to incident stroke. Therefore, oral health does not seem to relate to all major CV disorders in a similar fashion.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Heart failure; Myocardial infarction; Oral health.
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