Bovine vaccinia: Inactivated Vaccinia virus vaccine induces protection in murine model

Vet Microbiol. 2017 May;204:84-89. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.03.009. Epub 2017 Mar 9.


Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions on the teats of dairy cows and the milkers' hands. Since 1999, due to the occurrence of many BV outbreaks in dairy farms across all Brazilian regions, there is a need to improve the control and prevention measures of the disease. Vaccination is one of the major tools to prevent viral diseases, and it could be an alternative for BV prevention. The main objective of this study was the development of vaccine formulations against BV using the inactivated VACV strain GP2 as antigen combined with different adjuvants. Potency tests were performed in mice, which were vaccinated with two doses at a 21-day interval, and then challenged with the vaccine homologous virus. VACV strain GP2 inactivated by beta-propiolactone (BPL) in association with adjuvants was effective in inducing a humoral immune response against VACV, as measured by neutralizing antibody (NA) titers, and was variable depending on the adjuvant used in each vaccine formulation. The vaccine formulation containing aluminum hydroxide (AH) associated with saponin as adjuvant induced the production of high NA titers in all vaccinated mice, giving 100% protection in Balb/c murine model after challenge with homologous virus.

Keywords: Bovine vaccinia; Immune response; Murine model; Vaccine; Vaccinia virus.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases / virology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Vaccinia / prevention & control*
  • Vaccinia / virology
  • Vaccinia virus* / classification
  • Viral Plaque Assay
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Viral Vaccines