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Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence From Animal and Human Studies


Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence From Animal and Human Studies

Christophe Kosinski et al. Nutrients.


The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described. Unfortunately, these effects seem to be limited in time. Moreover, these diets are not totally safe and can be associated with some adverse events. Notably, in rodents, development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance have been described. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of ketogenic diets on different cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans based on available evidence.

Keywords: NAFLD; cardiovascular risk factors; fibroblast growth factor (FGF21); insulin resistance; ketogenic diets; obesity; type 2 diabetes.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Effects of ketogenic diets in rodents and humans.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Effects of ketogenic diets on biomolecular markers. FGF21: fibroblast growth factor-21; ALT: alanine aminotransferase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; QUICKI: quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.

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