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Review
. 2017 Jun 14;65(23):4553-4561.
doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01813. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Pesticide Interactions: Mechanisms, Benefits, and Risks

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Review

Pesticide Interactions: Mechanisms, Benefits, and Risks

John E Casida. J Agric Food Chem. .

Abstract

Interactions between pesticides at common molecular targets and detoxification systems often determine their effectiveness and safety. Compounds with the same mode of action or target are candidates for cross resistance and restrictions in their recommended uses. Discovery research is therefore focused on new mechanisms and modes of action. Interactions in detoxification systems also provide cross resistance and synergist and safener mechanisms illustrated with serine hydrolases and inhibitors, cytochrome P450 and insecticide synergists, and glutathione S-transferases and herbicide safeners. Secondary targets are also considered for inhibitors of serine hydrolases, aldehyde dehydrogenases, and transporters. Emphasis is given to the mechanistic aspects of interactions, not the incidence, which depends on potency, exposure, ratios, and timing. The benefits of pesticide interactions are the additional levels of chemical control to achieve desired organismal effects. The risks are the unpredictable interactions of complex interconnected biological systems. However, with care, two can be better than one.

Keywords: cytochrome P450; detoxification; glutathione S-transferase; molecular target; resistance; safener; synergist.

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