Over the past decades, peroxisomes have emerged as key regulators in overall cellular lipid and reactive oxygen species metabolism. In mammals, these organelles have also been recognized as important hubs in redox-, lipid-, inflammatory-, and innate immune-signaling networks. To exert these activities, peroxisomes must interact both functionally and physically with other cell organelles. This review provides a comprehensive look of what is currently known about the interconnectivity between peroxisomes and mitochondria within mammalian cells. We first outline how peroxisomal and mitochondrial abundance are controlled by common sets of cis- and trans-acting factors. Next, we discuss how peroxisomes and mitochondria may communicate with each other at the molecular level. In addition, we reflect on how these organelles cooperate in various metabolic and signaling pathways. Finally, we address why peroxisomes and mitochondria have to maintain a healthy relationship and why defects in one organelle may cause dysfunction in the other. Gaining a better insight into these issues is pivotal to understanding how these organelles function in their environment, both in health and disease.
Keywords: fatty acid oxidation; human disease; interorganelle crosstalk; mitochondria; organelle abundance; organelle dysfunction; peroxisomes; reactive oxygen species.