Relationship between the use of benzodiazepines and falls in older adults: A systematic review

Maturitas. 2017 Jul;101:17-22. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.04.002. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Abstract

Falls in the elderly represent a major health problem. The etiology of falls is usually multifactorial. Special attention should be paid on benzodiazepines (BZDs) since they are widely used by older adults. A literature search of the PUBMED and EMBASE databases from January 2007 to February 2017 was conducted using the MeSH terms "benzodiazepines", "elderly" and "falls" or "accidental falls". The systematic review was performed according to PRISMA criteria. Of the 27 references selected for full reading from 235 found, 15 were eliminated and 12 papers were selected for systematic review. Exposure to BZDs was associated with a higher risk of falls in older adults, which is consistent with the results reported in the literature and previous reviews and meta-analyses. BZDs increase the risk of falling when used either as monotherapy or in combined therapies. It is preferable to use short-acting BZDs, to avoid cumulative effects over time predisposing to falls. A high proportion of falls in older adults are related to the use of BZDs. They should be prescribed to older patients in accordance with current clinical guidelines and reviewed over time. BZDs should be prescribed as a short-term therapy and progressively withdrawn. Short-acting BZDs should be the treatment of choice.

Keywords: Accidental falls; Aged; Benzodiazepines; Elderly; Older.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Accidental Falls / statistics & numerical data*
  • Aged
  • Benzodiazepines / therapeutic use*
  • Humans

Substances

  • Benzodiazepines