Yellow sac spider (Cheiracanthium punctorium) bites in Slovenia: case series and review

Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2017 Sep;129(17-18):630-633. doi: 10.1007/s00508-017-1217-8. Epub 2017 May 24.


In Central Europe, reports of human envenomation by Cheiracanthium punctorium, commonly known as the yellow sac spider, are sporadic, despite the fact that this species is widespread in Europe. However, in recent years, C. punctorium has been repeatedly described globally in medical and toxicological literature. Its venom was found to possess insecticidal, haemolytic, cytotoxic, and membrane-damaging activities. Its bite is often very painful, frequently associated with local and transient cutaneous and neurotoxic effects, but sometimes also with systemic symptoms which require medical help. The main objective of this article is to introduce more details about C. punctorium, the clinical manifestations and circumstances of its bite, the characteristics of its venom and proposed clinical management. The authors provide case reports of patients bitten by C. punctorium during the 10-year observational period. All patients presented in this article showed generally mild clinical manifestations and recovered completely without sequelae. No further treatment in terms of hospital surveillance or specific clinical measures was necessary in any of the reported cases.

Keywords: Cheiracanthium punctorium; Europe; Spider bite; Spider venoms; Yellow sac spider.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Edema / etiology
  • Erythema / etiology
  • First Aid
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hand Injuries / diagnosis
  • Hand Injuries / epidemiology*
  • Hand Injuries / therapy
  • Humans
  • Slovenia
  • Spider Bites / diagnosis
  • Spider Bites / epidemiology*
  • Spider Bites / therapy
  • Spider Venoms / adverse effects*


  • Spider Venoms