Background and objectives: Abemaciclib, a dual inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, has demonstrated clinical activity in a number of different cancer types. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of abemaciclib in cancer patients using population pharmacokinetic (popPK) modeling, and to evaluate target engagement at clinically relevant dose levels.
Methods: A phase I study was conducted in cancer patients which incorporated intensive pharmacokinetic sampling after single and multiple oral doses of abemaciclib. Data were analyzed by popPK modeling, and patient demographics contributing to pharmacokinetic variability were explored. Target engagement was evaluated by combining the clinical popPK model with a previously developed pre-clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.
Results: The pharmacokinetic analysis incorporated 4012 plasma concentrations from 224 patients treated with abemaciclib at doses ranging from 50 to 225 mg every 24 h and 75 to 275 mg every 12 h. A linear one-compartment model with time- and dose-dependent relative bioavailability (F rel) adequately described the pharmacokinetics of abemaciclib. Serum albumin and alkaline phosphatase were the only significant covariates identified in the model, the inclusion of which reduced inter-individual variability in F rel by 10.3 percentage points. By combining the clinical popPK model with the previously developed pre-clinical pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model, the extent of target engagement in skin in cancer patients was successfully predicted.
Conclusion: The proportion of abemaciclib pharmacokinetic variability that can be attributed to patient demographics is negligible, and as such there are currently no dose adjustments recommended for adult patients of different sex, age, or body weight.
Trial registration: NCT01394016 (ClinicalTrials.gov).