Metrics Beyond Hemoglobin A1C in Diabetes Management: Time in Range, Hypoglycemia, and Other Parameters

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2017 May;19(S2):S16-S26. doi: 10.1089/dia.2017.0029.


We review clinical instances in which A1C should not be used and reflect on the use of other glucose metrics that can be used, in substitution of or in combination with A1C and SMBG, to tailor an individualized approach that will result in better outcomes and patient empowerment.

Keywords: Continuous glucose monitoring; Flash-continuous glucose monitoring; Glucose metrics; Glycemic biomarkers.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / methods
  • Diabetes Complications / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Complications / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / therapy
  • Disease Management*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / diagnosis*
  • Hypoglycemia / etiology
  • Time Factors


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human