Greywater treatment by granular filtration system using volcanic tuff and gravel media

Water Sci Technol. 2017 May;75(10):2331-2341. doi: 10.2166/wst.2017.102.


The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a granular filtration system (GFS) in greywater treatment under arid and semi-arid conditions. Six GFSs were designed, constructed, and monitored for approximately 13 months. Each GFS served a single rural Jordanian home by treating their greywater. Volcanic tuff media were used as the filtration media in three of the GFSs while the remaining three GFSs used gravel media. Results show that the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids of the effluent were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 73%, 65%, and 85%, respectively, when using volcanic tuff media. The removal efficiency was 49%, 51%, and 76%, respectively, when using gravel media. There was a significant increase in the electrical conductivity, pH, potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl-), sodium (Na+), sulfate (SO42-), bicarbonates (HCO3-), sodium adsorption ratio, and exchangeable sodium percentage in the effluents of the GFS that used volcanic tuff media. The study suggests that GFSs can adequately treat greywater under arid conditions. However, gravel media produce less concentrated effluent compared to the volcanic tuff media.

MeSH terms

  • Filtration / methods*
  • Waste Disposal, Fluid / methods*