Background: Sequence variants near the human gene for P4-type ATPase, class V, type 10D (ATP10D) were shown to significantly associate with circulating hexosylceramide d18:1/16:0 and d18:1/24:1 levels, obesity, insulin resistance, plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL), coronary stenotic index and intracranial atherosclerotic index. In mice Atp10d is associated with HDL modulation and C57BL/6 mice expressing a truncated, non-functional form of ATP10D easily develop obesity and insulin resistance on high-fat diet.
Results: We analyzed metabolic differences of ATP10D deficient C57BL/6J wild type and ATP10D transgenic C57BL/6J BAC129 mice. ATP10D transgenic mice gain 25% less weight on high-fat diet concomitant with a reduced increase in fat cell mass but independent of adipocyte size change. ATP10D transgenic mice also had 26% lower triacylglycerol levels with approximately 76% bound to very low density lipoprotein while in ATP10D deficient wild type mice 57% are bound to low density lipoprotein. Furthermore increased oxygen consumption and CO2 production, 38% lower glucose and 69% lower insulin levels and better insulin sensitivity were observed in ATP10D transgenic mice. Besides decreased hexosylceramide species levels were detected. Part of these effects may be due to reduced hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) expression in ATP10D transgenic mice, which was reflected by altered fatty acid and lipid species patterns. There was a significant decrease in the hepatic 18:1 to 18:0 free fatty acid ratio in transgenic mice. The ratio of 16:1 to 16:0 was not significantly different. Interestingly both ratios were significantly reduced in plasma total fatty acids.
Summary: In summary we found that ATP10D reduces high-fat diet induced obesity and improves insulin sensitivity. ATP10D transgenic mice showed altered hepatic expression of lipid-metabolism associated genes, including Scd1, along with changes in hepatic and plasma lipid species and plasma lipoprotein pattern.