Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with mixed dyslipidaemia, where non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels may more closely align with cardiovascular risk than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We describe the design and rationale of the ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA study that assesses the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor, versus lipid-lowering usual care in individuals with T2DM and mixed dyslipidaemia at high cardiovascular risk with non-HDL-C inadequately controlled despite maximally tolerated statin therapy. For the first time, atherogenic cholesterol-lowering with a PCSK9 inhibitor will be assessed with non-HDL-C as the primary endpoint with usual care as the comparator.
Methods: DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA is a Phase 3b/4, randomised, open-label, parallel group, multinational study that planned to enrol 420 individuals. Main inclusion criteria were T2DM and mixed dyslipidaemia (non-HDL-C ≥100 mg/dl [≥2.59 mmol/l], and triglycerides ≥150 and <500 mg/dl [≥1.70 and <5.65 mmol/l]) with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or ≥1 additional cardiovascular risk factor. Participants were randomised (2:1) to alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or lipid-lowering usual care on top of maximally tolerated statin (or no statin if intolerant). If randomised to usual care, investigators were able to add their pre-specified choice of one of the following to the patient's current statin regimen: ezetimibe, fenofibrate, omega-3 fatty acids or nicotinic acid, in accordance with local standard-of-care. Alirocumab-treated individuals with non-HDL-C ≥100 mg/dl at week 8 will undergo a blinded dose increase to 150 mg Q2W at week 12. The primary efficacy endpoint is non-HDL-C change from baseline to week 24 with alirocumab versus usual care; other lipid levels (including LDL-C), glycaemia-related measures, safety and tolerability will also be assessed. Alirocumab will be compared to fenofibrate in a secondary analysis.
Results: Recruitment completed with 413 individuals randomised in 14 countries worldwide. Results of this trial are expected in the second quarter of 2017.
Conclusions: ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA will provide information on the efficacy and safety of alirocumab versus lipid-lowering usual care in individuals with T2DM and mixed dyslipidaemia at high cardiovascular risk using non-HDL-C as the primary efficacy endpoint. Trial registration NCT02642159 (registered December 24, 2015).
Keywords: Alirocumab; Diabetes; Mixed dyslipidaemia; Non-HDL-C; ODYSSEY; PCSK9.