The effect of feed supplementation with effective microorganisms (EM) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in pigs

Res Vet Sci. 2017 Dec:115:244-249. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.03.008. Epub 2017 Apr 14.


Effective microorganisms (EM) are used in numerous fields associated with agriculture. The beneficial effects of EM on the general health of pigs and on production parameters are also determined by the influence of these microbes on immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of feed supplementation with EM on the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and in a culture of PBMCs with and without ConA stimulation in pigs. ELISA kits were used to determine the cytokine levels in the porcine serum and the PBMC culture supernatants. Evaluation of the serum concentration of cytokines revealed statistically significantly higher concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the pigs receiving EM Bokashi. The highest concentration of TGF-β in the experimental group was noted on the final test day. Evaluation of cytokine concentrations in the PBMC cultures revealed statistically significantly higher concentrations of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 from the third day of the experiment. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α were obtained in the unstimulated PBMC culture on the second test day and in the culture treated with ConA on the second and the third test days. The results of our study indicate that supplementation of pig feed with EM Bokashi activates the cell-mediated and humoral immune response, ensuring that Th1/Th2 balance is maintained and enhancing immune processes protecting the body against infection.

Keywords: ConA stimulation of PBMC; Cytokine expression; Effective microorganisms; Pigs.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed / analysis
  • Animals
  • Concanavalin A / pharmacology
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Diet / veterinary
  • Female
  • Immunity, Cellular / drug effects*
  • Immunity, Humoral / drug effects*
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology*
  • Mitogens / pharmacology
  • Probiotics / administration & dosage
  • Probiotics / pharmacology*
  • Sus scrofa / immunology*


  • Cytokines
  • Mitogens
  • Concanavalin A