Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are typical intracellular chaperones which also appear on the cell surface and in extracellular milieu. HSP90, which chaperones many proteins involved in signal transduction, is also a regular component of LPS-signaling complexes on Mϕ. As LPS is a prototypical PAMP, we speculated that HSP90 is engaged in pattern recognition by professional phagocytes. In this report, we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of the geldanamycin (Ge)-inhibitable HSP90 on the surface of live monocyte-derived Mϕs (hMDMs). Using cytometry and specific Abs, we showed both HSP90 isoforms (α and β) on the surface of human monocytes and hMDMs. The cell-surface HSP90 pool was also labeled with cell-impermeable Ge derivatives. Confocal analysis of hMDMs revealed that HSP90-inhibitor complexes were rapidly clustered on the cell surface and recycled through the endosomal compartment. This finding suggests that the N-terminal (ATPase) domain of HSP90 is exposed and accessible from the extracellular space. To study the role of cell-surface HSP90 in pattern recognition, we used pathogen (PAMPs)- or apoptotic cell-associated molecular patterns (ACAMPs). We showed that blocking the cell-surface HSP90 pool leads to a dramatic decrease in TNF production by monocytes and hMDMs exposed to soluble (TLRs-specific ligands) and particulate [bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG)] PAMPs. Surprisingly, in hMDMs the functional cell-surface HSP90 was not necessary for the engulfment of either apoptotic neutrophils or bacteria. The presented data suggest that the cell-surface HSP90 is a "signaling complex chaperone," with activity that is essential for cytokine response but not for target engulfment by Mϕ.
Keywords: PAMPs; chaperone; geldanamycin; phagocytosis; signalling.
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