A new polysaccharide compound (ACPS-R) has recently been isolated from the root of Actinidia Chinensis Planch. When given intraperitoneally to the transplantable tumor bearing mice at dose of 75-125 mg/kg, the tumor inhibition rate was more than 88.8% in Ehrilich ascitic cancer (EAC) or ascitic form of hepatoma (HepA) and more than 49.6% in solid hepatoma (HepS). The treatment effect of ACPS-R on EAC at dose of 15 mg/kg and 22.5 mg/kg, respectively. ACPS-R could also prolong the life of EAC-or P388-bearing mice, and increase the percentage of EAC-free mice. In addition, when ACPS-R was used in combination with 5-Fu, the antitumor effect was enhanced as compared with 5-Fu alone. A marked increase in cAMP levels and cAMP/cGMP ratio of spleen of EAC-bearing mice were observed after treatment of ACPS-R. The increase of both parameters nearly reached the normal levels of healthy mice. The increases of cAMP, cAMP/cGMP and tumor remission had statistical significance. It showed an intermediate inhibitory effect of ACPS-R on DNA synthesis by incorporating 3H-TdR into EAC cells. The results indicated that ACPS-R acts as a new antitumor polysaccharide, and the treatment effect of Actinidia root in folk medicine is probably related to ACPS-R.