Cytosolic Cl- Affects the Anticancer Activity of Paclitaxel in the Gastric Cancer Cell Line, MKN28 Cell

Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42(1):68-80. doi: 10.1159/000477116. Epub 2017 May 11.


Background/aims: Our previous study revealed that cytosolic Cl- affected neurite elongation promoted via assembly of microtubule in rat pheochromocytoma PC12D cells and Cl--induced blockade of intrinsic GTPase enhanced tubulin polymerization in vitro. Paclitaxel (PTX) is a microtubule-targeted chemotherapeutic drug and stabilizes microtubules resulting in mainly blockade of mitosis at the metaphase-anaphase transition and induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we tried to clarify whether the cytosolic Cl- affected PTX ability to inhibit cell growth in the gastric cancer cell line, MKN28.

Methods: To clarify the cytosolic Cl- action on PTX-induced cell death and metaphase-anaphase transition in the gastric cancer cell line, MKN28 cell, and PTX-induced tubulin polymerization, we performed cell proliferation assay, cytosolic Cl- concentration measurement, immunofluorescence microscopy, and in vitro tubulin polymerization assay.

Results: The decline of cytosolic Cl- weakened the cytotoxic effect of PTX on cell proliferation of MKN28 cells, which could pass through the metaphase-anaphase transition. Moreover, in vitro PTX-induced tubulin polymerization was diminished under the low Cl- condition.

Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that the upregulation of cytosolic Cl- concentration would enhance the antitumor effect of PTX, and that the cytosolic Cl- would be one of the key targets for anti-cancer therapy.

Keywords: Cell proliferation; Cytosolic chloride; Gastric cancer; Microtubule polymerization; Paclitaxel.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis / drug effects*
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints / drug effects
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Chlorides / metabolism*
  • Cytosol / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Paclitaxel / pharmacology*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Tubulin / chemistry
  • Tubulin / metabolism
  • Tubulin Modulators / pharmacology


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Chlorides
  • Tubulin
  • Tubulin Modulators
  • Paclitaxel