Association of Adiposity Indices With Bone Density and Bone Turnover in the Chinese Population

Osteoporos Int. 2017 Sep;28(9):2645-2652. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-4081-5. Epub 2017 May 29.

Abstract

Associations of adiposity indices with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers were evaluated in Chinese participants. Body mass index, fat mass, and lean mass are positively related to BMD in both genders. Subcutaneous fat area was proved to be negatively associated with BMD and positively correlated with osteocalcin in postmenopausal females.

Introduction: Obesity is highly associated with osteoporosis, but the effect of adipose tissue on bone is contradictory. Our study aimed to assess the associations of adiposity indices with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in the Chinese population.

Methods: Our study recruited 5215 participants from the Shanghai area, evaluated related anthropometric and biochemical traits in all participants, tested serum BTMs, calculated fat distribution using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and image analysis software, and tested BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Results: When controlled for age, all adiposity indices were positively correlated with BMD of all sites for both genders. As for the stepwise regression analysis, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and lean mass were protective for BMD in both genders. However, subcutaneous fat area (SFA) was detrimental for BMD of the L1-4 and femoral neck (β ± SE -0.0742 ± 0.0174; p = 2.11E-05; β ± SE -0.0612 ± 0.0147; p = 3.07E-05). Adiposity indices showed a negative correlation with BTMs adjusting for age, especially with osteocalcin. In the stepwise regression analysis, fat mass was negatively correlated with osteocalcin (β ± SE -8.8712 ± 1.4902; p = 4.17E-09) and lean mass showed a negative correlation with N-terminal procollagen of type I collagen (PINP) for males (β ± SE -0.3169 ± 0.0917; p = 0.0006). In females, BMI and visceral fat area (VFA) were all negatively associated with osteocalcin (β ± SE -0.4423 ± 0.0663; p = 2.85E-11; β ± SE -7.1982 ± 1.1094; p = 9.95E-11), while SFA showed a positive correlation with osteocalcin (β ± SE: 5.5993 ± 1.1753; p = 1.98E-06).

Conclusion: BMI, fat mass, and lean mass are proved to be beneficial for BMD in both males and postmenopausal females. SFA is negatively associated with BMD and positively correlated with osteocalcin in postmenopausal females.

Keywords: Adiposity indices; Bone mineral density; Bone turnover markers; Osteoporosis.

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon / methods
  • Adiposity / physiology*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anthropometry / methods
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Body Mass Index
  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Bone Remodeling / physiology*
  • Female
  • Femur Neck / physiology
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / physiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteocalcin / blood
  • Osteoporosis / blood
  • Osteoporosis / physiopathology*
  • Postmenopause / blood
  • Postmenopause / physiology
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Subcutaneous Fat / anatomy & histology

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Osteocalcin