The Relationship Between Spirituality/Religiousness and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Among HIV-Infected Adults in Southwestern Uganda

AIDS Behav. 2018 Jun;22(6):1802-1813. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1805-7.


HIV and alcohol use are two serious and co-existing problems in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the relationship between spirituality and/or religiousness (SR) and unhealthy alcohol use among treatment-naïve HIV-infected adults attending the HIV clinic in Mbarara, Uganda. Unhealthy alcohol was defined as having either an alcohol use disorders identification test-consumption score of ≥4 for men or ≥3 for women, or having a phosphatidylethanol level of ≥50 ng/ml based on analysis of dried bloodspot specimens. Of the 447 participants, 67.8% were female; the median age was 32 years (interquartile range [IQR] 27-40). About half reported being Protestant (49.2%), 35.1% Catholic, and 9.2% Muslim. The median SR score was high (103 [IQR 89-107]); 43.3% drank at unhealthy levels. Higher SR scores were associated with lower odds of unhealthy drinking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.83 per standard deviation [SD] increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-1.03). The "religious behavior" SR subscale was significantly associated with unhealthy alcohol use (aOR: 0.72 per SD increase; 95% CI 0.58-0.88). Religious institutions, which facilitate expression of religious behavior, may be helpful in promoting and maintaining lower levels of alcohol use.

Keywords: Alcohol; HIV; Phosphatidylethanol; Spirituality/religiousness; Uganda.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group / psychology*
  • Alcohol Drinking / blood*
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Glycerophospholipids / blood*
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Religion*
  • Spirituality*
  • Uganda / epidemiology


  • Glycerophospholipids
  • phosphatidylethanol