Is Trypophobia a Phobia?

Psychol Rep. 2017 Apr;120(2):206-218. doi: 10.1177/0033294116687298. Epub 2017 Jan 18.


In the past 10 years, thousands of people have claimed to be affected by trypophobia, which is the fear of objects with small holes. Recent research suggests that people do not fear the holes; rather, images of clustered holes, which share basic visual characteristics with venomous organisms, lead to nonconscious fear. In the present study, both self-reported measures and the Preschool Single Category Implicit Association Test were adapted for use with preschoolers to investigate whether discomfort related to trypophobic stimuli was grounded in their visual features or based on a nonconsciously associated fear of venomous animals. The results indicated that trypophobic stimuli were associated with discomfort in children. This discomfort seemed to be related to the typical visual characteristics and pattern properties of trypophobic stimuli rather than to nonconscious associations with venomous animals. The association between trypophobic stimuli and venomous animals vanished when the typical visual characteristics of trypophobic features were removed from colored photos of venomous animals. Thus, the discomfort felt toward trypophobic images might be an instinctive response to their visual characteristics rather than the result of a learned but nonconscious association with venomous animals. Therefore, it is questionable whether it is justified to legitimize trypophobia.

Keywords: fear of holes; nonconscious association; phobia; trypophobia; visual processing.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Fear / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Phobic Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Phobic Disorders / psychology
  • Photic Stimulation

Supplementary concepts

  • Phobia, Specific