Fish oil (FO) supplementation reduces the risk of CVD. However, it is not known if FO of different qualities have different effects on lipoprotein subclasses in humans. We aimed at investigating the effects of oxidised FO and high-quality FO supplementation on lipoprotein subclasses and their lipid concentrations in healthy humans. In all, fifty-four subjects completed a double-blind randomised controlled intervention study. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive high-quality FO (n 17), oxidised FO (n 18) or high-oleic sunflower oil capsules (HOSO, n 19) for 7 weeks. The concentration of marine n-3 fatty acids was equal in high-quality FO and oxidised FO (1·6 g EPA+DHA/d). The peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV) were 4 mEq/kg and 3 in high-quality FO and HOSO, whereas the PV and AV in the oxidised FO were 18 mEq/kg and 9. Blood samples were collected at baseline and end of study. NMR spectroscopy was applied for the analysis of lipoprotein subclasses and their lipid concentrations. High-quality FO reduced the concentration of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) particles and large, medium and small LDL particles, as well as the concentrations of total lipids, phospholipids, total cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and free cholesterol in IDL and LDL subclasses compared with oxidised FO and HOSO. Hence, high-quality FO and oxidised FO differently affect lipid composition in lipoprotein subclasses, with a more favourable effect mediated by high-quality FO. In future trials, reporting the oxidation levels of FO would be useful.
Keywords: AV anisidine value; CETP cholesteryl ester transfer protein; E% percentage of energy; FO fish oil; HOSO high-oleic sunflower oil capsules; IDL intermediate-density lipoprotein; PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PV peroxide value; Fish oil; LDL; Lipoprotein subclasses; Oxidised fish oil.