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. 2017 Aug;24(8):2206-2212.
doi: 10.1245/s10434-017-5899-y. Epub 2017 May 30.

Increased Grade in Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastases Negatively Impacts Survival

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Free PMC article

Increased Grade in Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastases Negatively Impacts Survival

Kendall J Keck et al. Ann Surg Oncol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Tumor grade is an important predictor of survival in gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), as determined by Ki-67 expression and mitotic rate. NETs generally grow indolently, but some cells may acquire traits facilitating metastasis. It is unclear how frequently metastases differ in grade from their primary tumors, and whether increasing grade in metastases affects prognosis.

Methods: Ki-67 immunohistochemistry was performed on resected GEPNET specimens and cases with results for both primary tumors and concurrent metastases were identified. Grade was determined using a modified World Health Organization classification (Ki-67: G1 = 0-2%; G2 > 2-20%; G3 > 20%).

Results: Ki-67 was performed on both the primary tumor and metastases in 103 patients. Tumor grade was higher in metastases from 25 (24%) patients, 24 increased from G1 to G2, and 1 increased from G2 to G3; 68 (66%) patients had no change in grade (42 G1 and 26 G2), and 10 (10%) decreased from G2 to G1. No clinicopathologic factors were predictive of higher grade in metastases. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 55% for patients with stable grade versus 8% of patients with increased grade, while 5-year overall survival (OS) was 92 and 54%, respectively. The 5-year OS of patients who had stable grade with G1 and G2 primaries was 92 and 64%, respectively.

Conclusions: Nearly one-third of patients had metastases with a different grade than their primary, and, when grade increased, both PFS and OS significantly decreased. Determining the grade in both the primary tumor and a metastasis is important for estimating prognosis and to help inform decisions regarding additional therapies.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
a: Progression-free survival for patients with G1 primary and stable grade compared to those patients with G1 primaries and increased grade and those patients with G2 primaries and stable grade. b: Overall Survival of patients with G1 primary and stable grade compared to those patients with G1 primaries and increased grade and those patients with G2 primaries and stable grade. c: Progression-free survival of patients with G1 primary and stable grade versus all patients with any G2 tumor. d: Overall survival of patients with G1 primary and stable grade versus all patients with any G2 tumor.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Hazard ratio plot with confidence intervals generated from multivariate regression analysis of factors affecting overall survival.

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