Introduction: There is a paucity of data on the impact of allogenic blood transfusion (ABT) on morbidity and survival outcomes after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC).
Methods: Nine hundred and thirty-five consecutive CRS/HIPEC procedures were performed between 1996 and 2016 at a high-volume institution in Sydney, Australia. Of these, 337(36%) patients required massive ABT (MABT) (≥5 units). Peri-operative complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. The association of concomitant MABT with 21 peri-operative outcomes and overall survival (OS) was assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results: In-hospital mortality was 1.8%. Patients requiring MABT had more extensive disease as reflected by a higher peritoneal cancer index (≥17) (70 vs. 29%, p < 0.001) and longer operative times (≥9 h) (82 vs. 35%, p < 0.001). After accounting for confounding factors, MABT was associated with in-hospital mortality (relative risk (RR), 7.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-10.11; p = 0.021) and grade III/IV morbidity (RR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.42-2.95; p < 0.001). MABT was associated with an increased incidence of prolonged hospital stay (≥28 days) (RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.26-2.74; p = 0.002) and intensive care unit stay (≥4 days) (RR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.24-2.70, p = 0.002). It was also associated with a significant OS in patients with colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis (RR 4.49; p < 0.001) and pseudomyxoma peritonei (RR, 4.37; p = 0.026), but not appendiceal cancer (p = 0.160).
Conclusion: MABT is an independent predictor for poorer peri-operative outcomes including in-hospital mortality and grade III/IV morbidity. It may also compromise long-term survival, particularly in patients with colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Keywords: Blood transfusion; Cytoreductive; Hyperthermic; Intraperitoneal; Morbidity; Mortality; Survival.