[Evaluation of viral etiology in central nervous system infections from a university hospital point of view in Izmir based on seven years data]

Mikrobiyol Bul. 2017 Apr;51(2):127-135. doi: 10.5578/mb.53825.
[Article in Turkish]


The serious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS); encephalitis and meningitis, have high mortality and morbidity rate especially not diagnosed and treated in time. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is the tool of choice for viral diagnosis in CNS infections. In this study, viral etiological agents found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to our university hospital virology laboratory for laboratory diagnosis of CNS infections were retrospectively evaluated and results were compared with other reports from our country. Viral etiological agents found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Ege University Faculty of Medicine Department of Medical Microbiology Virology Laboratories for laboratory diagnosis of CNS infection between 01.01.2009-31.12.2015 were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 3778 CSF tests were performed for cell culture of enterovirus (EV) in 487 samples and 3291 tests for nucleic acid testing (NAT) by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) and EV. VZV and EV NAT's were performed during the last one and five years period, respectively. NAT positive results for HSV1, HSV2, CMV, EBV, VZV, HHV6 and EV were 1.80% (24/1333), 0.08% (1/1333), 3.28% (19/580), 4.35% (22/506), 0.46% (1/216), 1.05% (5/478) and 3.37% (6/178), respectively. EV was isolated in 30 (6.20%) of 487 CSF samples by viral culture. Positive samples were mainly from pediatric, neurology and infectious diseases clinics as expected. The number of higher positive results were found in samples sentin december (35.3%), july (12.9%) and november (10.6%). Overall 80% of positive samples belonged to patients over 18 years old. When the results of other studies reported from Turkey are examined, although the positivity rates are generally similar, it is seen that the rates specific to certain factors are higher in selected smaller patient groups like HSV1 and EV. Rapid nucleic acid tests like multiplex PCR and microarray will provide more practical and effective laboratory diagnosis approach in CNS infections, since many more microorganisms may be causative agents.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Central Nervous System Viral Diseases / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Central Nervous System Viral Diseases / virology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cytomegalovirus / genetics
  • Cytomegalovirus / isolation & purification
  • DNA, Viral / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Enterovirus / genetics
  • Enterovirus / isolation & purification*
  • Female
  • Herpesvirus 1, Human / genetics
  • Herpesvirus 1, Human / isolation & purification
  • Herpesvirus 2, Human / genetics
  • Herpesvirus 2, Human / isolation & purification
  • Herpesvirus 3, Human / genetics
  • Herpesvirus 3, Human / isolation & purification
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification
  • Herpesvirus 6, Human / genetics
  • Herpesvirus 6, Human / isolation & purification
  • Hospitals, University
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Turkey
  • Young Adult


  • DNA, Viral